In the beginning...
The Planned Environment Therapy Trust was established in 1966 at the request of Dr. Marjorie Franklin, "The Founder" (1887-1975).
Marjorie Franklin was a remarkable psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who seems to have had a genius for recognising the skills and talents in others, and in drawing them together into ground-breaking social and psychological experiments. She was also the author of the term "planned environment therapy", coining the phrase prior to the Second World War for a then-experimental group approach to delinquency and to social and emotional difficulties in which one could take the growing insights of psychoanalysis and psychiatry out of expensive one-on-one consulting rooms - where they were largely available only to the well-to-do - and incorporate them into the work of planned groups and communities, where their healing insights could be available to all.
Among Marjorie Franklin's 'discoveries' was David Wills. Later awarded an OBE for his pioneering work in residential therapeutic care for children and young people, Wills was a very experienced but still unrooted social worker when Marjorie Franklin, Honorary Secretary of the Q Camps Committee, attracted him to take the role of Camp Chief at Q's experimental Hawkspur Camp in Essex in 1936. Almost seventy years later David Kennard was writing about “...the hugely influential Marjorie Franklin and David Wills, whose 1930s Hawkspur Camp laid the foundation for Planned Environment Therapy, described by Kasinski as “'probably the first unified model for the therapeutic community work with young people'”. (Kennard (2004), “The therapeutic community as an adaptable treatment modality different settings”, Psychiatric Quarterly75:3).
Among her more influential "bringing-togethers" came in 1940 when Marjorie Franklin invited the now-internationally famous paediatrician and psychoanalyst Donald Winnicott to take part in the work of the Q Camps Committee, as a consultant working closely with David Wills. In 1970, just before his death, Winnicott looked back on this meeting with David Wills and wrote:
"I do not need to go far to find an inflated psychotherapist. There’s me. In the decade called the thirties I was learning to be a psychoanalyst, and I could feel that, with a little more training, a little more skill, and a little more luck, I could move mountains by making the right interpretations at the right moment… At one time I could have been heard saying that there is no therapy except on the basis of fifty minutes five times a week, going on for as many years as necessary, done by a trained psychoanalyst… But sooner or later the process of growing smaller starts, and it’s painful at first, till you get used to it. For me I think I started to grow smaller at the time of my first contact with David Wills....” [For more on this crucial episode in the history of residential therapeutic child care, see Craig Fees, "A Fearless Frankness", Childrenwebmag, September 2010]
Marjorie Franklin had an aptitude for falling out of the story, however, and her contribution to the history of psychoanalysis and group approaches to social and personal distress has still to be written. It must largely be inferred from her associations, initiatives, and the people whose careers she influenced. Among these, Donald Winnicott's clinical and theoretical impact continues to grow, not least through the work of the Winnicott Trust and the Squiggle Foundation. David Wills's continues, in part through an annual lecture in his honour sponsored by SEBDA, the Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties Association. Marjorie Franklin's influence continues not only in their work, and that of others whom she brought together and encouraged; but is embodied in the Planned Environment Therapy Trust, which she conceived and founded.
Choosing the Founding Trustees: Three key men
Although she was a very astute, persuasive, and intelligent judge of people, Marjorie Franklin was also an immensely difficult and challenging person to work with. Her 'falling out of the story' reflects her capacity for alienating authorities and colleagues, and for making huge and contradictory emotional demands on her friends. By her late 70s, when she took the decision to form the Planned Environment Therapy Trust, Marjorie Franklin was, if anything, more idiosyncratic and demanding than ever. She had three men in mind to co-form the Trust with her: Franklin's little difficulty was overcoming their reservations in working closely with her again.
A consistent supporting presence in helping her to realise her social therapeutic vision, from the creation of the Q Camps Committee onwards, was a progressive Lincoln's Inn solicitor named Ambrose Appelbe, whose firm of the same name was established in 1935, the year before Hawkspur Camp opened. When she decided to form a Trust to carry on the work of developing and making the principles and practice of planned environment therapy more widely known, she turned to him for the legal foundation. He agreed, and was one of the first of the three founding Trustees, with Marjorie Franklin as 'The Founder'. Ambrose Appelbe was experienced in staying in the background, and offering wise guidance when called upon.
The other two she regarded as essential to the founding of the Trust were David Wills and Arthur Barron, the individuals who had played the greatest and most central role in proving and developing her work and ideas over many years.
In 1935, when Marjorie Franklin first met him to talk about the possibility of helping to pioneer a therapeutic camp in the Essex countryside, David Wills was in his early 30s, and already one of the most highly trained and experienced residential social workers in England. He was looking for a piece of work where he could develop, test, and prove an approach to delinquent and difficult young people and men which did not involve punishment or the arbitrary exercise of power, but rather, as a Quaker, was based on the principles of love and what he came to call "shared responsibility". This opportunity was given to him as Camp Chief at Hawkspur Camp, through which he worked closely with Marjorie Franklin from 1936 to 1940. She afterwards had the pleasure of watching him mature to become one of the most highly regarded practitioners and therapeutic leaders of the influential post-war generation.
Arthur "Bunny" Barron was just a teenage volunteer at Hawkspur Camp when Marjorie Franklin first met him. She had worked closely with him there as a member of staff, and reached out to him again to become Camp Chief at the second Hawkspur Camp, for Boys, in 1944-45: Watching him grow after the war into a highly experienced child care consultant and child psychoanalyst, a regularly published practitioner who had trained under Anna Freud herself.
Overcoming the 'little difficulty':
By the 1960s David Wills and Arthur Barron were both iconic practitioners and exponents of 'planned environment therapy'. Both had known and worked closely with Marjorie Franklin for more than a quarter of a century. Both were essential to her plan to embody the life, development, and propagation of planned environment therapy in a charitable Trust which would carry the work forward beyond her death. But there was the 'little difficulty': given the entanglements and conflict they were both all too familiar with after so many years of knowing Marjorie Franklin, neither Wills nor Barron viewed the prospect of working with her again with equanimity. Indeed, Wills let her know that he would only consider it on the condition that the Trust remained inactive during her lifetime.
Franklin, however, had been thinking about the creation of a Trust for a decade, and prepared the ground, setting up a Planned Environment Therapy Discussion Group in 1963 which met regularly in her rooms. This discussion group drew formal papers from herself, Wills, Barron and a varied group of established as well as young and upcoming practitioners, students and academics. It brought history, theory and current practice together in the exciting way that characterises planned environment therapy and has defined the Trust from its beginning. With all their apprehensions, the taste of this must have made it very difficult for David Wills and Arthur Barron - Wills in his mid-60s and Barron in his late 40s - to pass up the opportunity Marjorie Franklin presented to them to develop and amplify their work through the creation of a brand new Trust. Both men agreed to become what Marjorie Franklin called "Clinical Trustees", and which David Wills renamed after her death "Executive Trustees". The Trust was formally established in 1966:
"To investigate and study, publish results and expositions, and train workers and eventually carry out in practice methods of treatment of: emotionally disturbed, maladjusted, or delinquent children: young persons or adults, by means of planned environmental therapy, especially in association with specialised psychotherapy.
Tensions in the early Trust: 1966-1971
Leaving aside the complexities which seemed to burst out of any correspondence and communication between the ageing Marjorie Franklin and her two Clinical Trustees, there was an immediate tension between Arthur Barron - whose work as a consultant was still growing - and David Wills, who was approaching retirement. The former saw the Trust as a means to actively develop and extend the work he was doing; the latter had agreed to become a Trustee on the basis that the Trust would remain dormant during Marjorie Franklin's lifetime. This split very nearly ended the life of the Trust before it had truly begun.
In fact it took the withdrawal of Marjorie Franklin from an active role in the Trust and ultimately her death in 1975 for the work of the Trust to really begin to blossom, but it was far from inactive during its first five years, re-publishing David Wills' book The Hawkspur Experiment in 1967, for example, carrying out consultancy in planned environment therapy, and initiating Studies in Environment Therapy, a journal whose first issue, edited by Arthur Barron, appeared in 1968 (and whose last, to date, was published in 1989).
New birth, and new growth: 1971-1976
However, The Founder was becoming old and infirm, and in 1971 Marjorie Franklin agreed to step back from active involvement in the work and direction of the Trust. A new life began, which started with the appointment of a series of new Trustees and the creation, in 1972, of an Advisory Group to help shape the Trust's future direction.
Joining David Wills and Arthur Barron as Trustees in 1971 were a cousin and niece of Marjorie Franklin, Gertrud White and Diana Holliday respectively; highly respected penal reform advocate and Secretary of the Howard League for Penal Reform, Hugh Klare; and an accomplished practitioner and rising young academic named Robert Laslett, who later became David Wills' literary executor, playing a major role in the creation of the Archive and Study Centre in 1989, and remaining an active and leading trustee until his untimely death in 2002. In 1973, in a second wave of new recruitments, psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Hyla Holden of the Tavistock Clinic and psychoanalyst Janet Humphrey became Trustees.
The members of the Advisory Group created in 1972 were Donald Garrod, OBE; Barbara Dockar-Drysdale, Irene Champernowne, Christopher Beedell, and Richard Balbernie.
It was a time of considerable ferment, during which the future directions of work for the Trust were essentially laid out.
Among the specific characteristics of this period was an interest not just in consultation, research, publication and public lectures, but in practice. For a time the Trust took a direct role in creating and managing an after-care hostel in Oxford in partnership with the Cotswold Community. The revitalised Trust gave substantial grants to support a new day centre in Gloucestershire, initially called the Gloucestershire Community Training Centre but quickly renamed the Barbican Centre (Maxwell Jones' colleague Dennie Briggs was sought as consultant; Howard Jones of Cardiff University was approached to carry out research). A strong interest was taken in H.M.P. Barlinnie's Special Unit in Scotland.
It became clear fairly quickly, however, that the Trust's future role lay not in active participation in the practice of therapy as such, but in the background processes of networking and support. From this period emerges a new role: bringing the various strands of therapeutic communities and environments together.
Meanwhile, having been a Trustee for ten years, and following the death of Marjorie Franklin in 1975, Arthur Barron left the Trust in 1976, and John Cross was recruited as an 'Executive Trustee' to take the role vacated by Arthur Barron. The Administrative Offices which had been based with Barron moved to New Barns School in Gloucestershire, where John Cross was founding Principal. Still a Trustee today, John Cross has played a central role in the life and development of the Trust for over 30 years, standing down as Executive Director at the age of 80 in 2011, and having been variously Executive Director, Chair, and combined Executive and Chair for the better part of the quarter of a century before that.
The Work of the Trust Bringing Therapeutic Community Together, 1978-1988
With so much going on within the Trust, it took time for a proposal made to fellow Trustees in 1974 by David Wills to bear fruit. The problem which had been identified was the fact that there were various strands of planned environment therapy at work around the country, but that these were working in virtual isolation from one another. The proposal was to convene a residential conference to bring these various areas of work and workers together. The outcome was the "Conference on Environmental Therapy", held at Cumberland Lodge in Windsor Great Park from January 16-19, 1978.
As a seminal event which brought together the Planned Environment Therapy Trust and the recently-formed Association of Therapeutic Communities for the first time, and which featured many of the leading figures in therapeutic community of the day, this conference deserves a study to itself. From it flowed a standing conference on planned environment therapy, and a series of collaborations between the Planned Environment Therapy Trust and the Association of Therapeutic Communities, which included a residential short course in "Shared Living" - a precursor of the "Living/Learning" workshops subsequently developed by the ATC.
Harking back to that conference ten years later, in 1988 the Planned Environment Therapy Trust and the Association of Therapeutic Communities convened another, calling it "Therapeutic Environments: into the 1990's", and again holding it over four days at Windsor Great Park. "In 1988", the programme read, "the climate has changed practically, philosophically and politically, and many of these changes call for radical re-assessment of conventional patterns of residential and day provision". The approach to the conference, however, remained the same: bringing the different strands of work and workers together into a community setting where research, practice, policy and the changing environment could be examined and discussed purposefully, and studied together.
The cross-fertilisation and the principles of networking, research, discussion and study underlying the PETT/ATC Windsor conferences influenced the next big step taken by the Trust.
When David Wills' widow Elizabeth was hit and killed by a lorry at the end of 1987, all of David Wills' immense collection of records and papers went to his literary executor, long-standing trustee Robert Laslett. With detailed records going back to the roots of planned environment therapy in the 1930s (including clinical files, correspondence and administrative records for Hawkspur Camp!), as well as personal records going back to the turn of the century, Robert Laslett recognised in the Wills Collection an immensely important resource for research and study. The papers needed professional, archival attention and storage; and they needed to be made available as fully as possible to students, researchers, and the practitioners and others who could benefit from the life and insights within them. Robert Laslett approached a number of universities and research libraries, which were not interested in taking the collection. He then took the problem to John Cross and fellow Trustees of the Planned Environment Therapy Trust. The Trust had received a benefaction from the Wills estate, and agreed that it was up to the Trust itself to do something about the collection. But what?
Following research commissioned from Dr. Craig Fees, and building on the work of the 1978 and 1988 conferences, the Trustees took the very ambitious decision to create 'an active centre for research and discussion' with 'as comprehensive an archive as possible', engaging a full-time archivist whose 'role would properly extend beyond archiving into organising seminars and small conferences, publications and information services, maximising and advertising the potential of the facilities.' Realising, in short, the synthesis and vision of networking and communication pioneered by the Trust in the 1978 conference and after.
A Grant Making Trust: The 1990s
While establishing the Archive and Study Centre, the Trust also actively grew its role as a charity which supports the work of others.
Grants to support publication were given, over a number of years, to Robert Young's Free Association Books; to the International Journal of Therapeutic Communities and its successor, Therapeutic Communities; to the Association of Workers for Children with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, and to Voice of the Child in Care. Process Press was given a research grant in 1996, and Reading University Library was given grants throughout the 90s to purchase publications in support of the Therapeutic Child Care Course. An ATC/PETT Essay Prize and a David Wills Essay Prize were instituted to recognise and encourage high quality writing on therapeutic environments, and a number of bursaries were given annually: for a psychotherapy training, and a child psychotherapy training; for Women's Therapy Centre courses; for the Reading University Therapeutic Child Care Course; for Arbours Association Training and placements. There were also a number of Research grants, as well as a grant towards the preservation of the Cassel Hospital archives; not to mention a general grant to the new Young Minds organisation.
In more direct support of working therapeutic communities the Trust gave a general grant in 1993 to Dartmouth House therapeutic community, and a series of grants to assist client placements in the Arbours Association. Grants in 1996 helped with the development of a new community house for the Philadelphia Association. Grants early in the decade helped with an extension at the Arbours Association, and later with new building and extensions.
It was an intensely active period.
The Barns Conference Centre, 2002: Accommodation and Activity
Grant-making receded and its own programme of building gradually took precedence, however, as the Trust endured the mud, disruption, delays, disasters and cost overruns of major construction to create Barns Centre: An unprecedented space for reflection, research and discussion for therapeutic environments and all those with an interest in them; set in a small village; in the midst of the English countryside.
The Trust opened its new facility in 2002 and christened it the Barns Conference Centre in honour of David Wills' pioneering work during World War II at Barns Hostel and School near Peebles in Scotland, and in recognition of New Barns School which had stood on the site. Barns Centre included an all-new eleven-room accommodation building, with additional bedrooms in the existing building; a stand-alone bathroom and utility facility, with access to the Trust's uncultivated field, and ideally sited for anyone visiting in a caravan; new and expanded kitchen, dining and meeting facilities, making it possible to host small conferences and seminars; and extensive purpose-built, climate-controlled archival storage space, to add to the storage and work facilities which were already in place.
With the engaged Archive and Study Centre in place to generate, host and facilitate them, a range of seminars, conferences, workshops and meetings began to be organised even before construction was completed.
Before the watershed: Events before Barns Centre was completed in 2002:
As early as 1995, for example, the Trust hosted a mini-conference, bringing together eleven people from a diverse range of organisations, including the Planned Environment Therapy Trust, the Cassel Hospital, Shotton Hall School, Human Scale Education, and the Summerhill School Trust, to develop communication and networking among therapeutic communities, small schools, and progressive/democratic/alternative educators.
An ambitious day conference of the Association of Therapeutic Communities, entitled "Raising the Roof..." was hosted in 1998; one of the last of the ATC day conferences, and one of the last events to make use of the swimming pool before it was closed for construction. [cue photograph]
In 1999 and again in 2001 the “Leaderless Group Seminars" brought together academics, students, clinicians, and historians for a residential event of shared debate and discussion on mid-20th century psychiatry and psychology: Dr. Lawrence Friedman, Ben Shephard, Dr. Robert Hinshelwood, Dr. Lesley Caldwell, Dr. Tom Harrison, Dr. Craig Fees, and students Maria Armstrong and Nafsika Thalassis met in 1999 to explore "Group and military psychiatry in World War II”; Steven Dykes, Dr. Lawrence Friedman, David Glenister, Dr. Robert Hinshelwood, Kevin Polley, Ben Shephard, Dr. Craig Fees, and students Nafsika Thalassis and Nuno Torres to explore "Developments in British psychiatry and psychology in the late 1940s and 1950s”.
Amidst different stages of construction, meetings were also held for the South West Region of the Society of Archivists, the Charity Archivists and Records Managers Group, and members of the Society of Archivists Film and Sound Group.
After the Watershed: 2002 and beyond
Trustee Robert Laslett died in 2002. Having been central to the life and development of the Trust for thirty years, and instrumental both in the creation of the Archive and Study Centre and the new Barns Centre, it was fitting that the new facility was christened as a public space by a meeting to celebrate his life and career. Two years later the Centre was taken over by the family of Chris Beedell, and transformed for a celebration of his life and contribution to therapeutic child care.
The full opening of the Barns Centre made it possible to experiment further and to become even more ambitious. In 2003, for example, the Archive conceived and organised “ATC-in-24”: A celebration of the thirtieth anniversary of the Association of Therapeutic Communities, described as:
A 24 hour, residential working conference involving some sixty people: Founding and early leaders of the Association of Therapeutic Communities, Trustees currently responsible for the business and future of the ATC, guests from other charities in the field, students, researchers and individual members of the ATC. The aim was to bring the diverse constituency of the field together to identify, address, and tackle themes and issues facing therapeutic community and the ATC today, grounded in an opening session of public reminiscence (and argument) by the senior members about the origins, history and vicissitudes of the early ATC, and looking towards the future. It proved a very successful format.
In 2004 the Archive and Study Centre hosted and facilitated a residential "Away Weekend" for the Oral History Society, in which the Committee examined itself and its processes, and prepared a business and development plan for the next five years.
The Trust hosted and helped to organise a small international conference in 2004, "Miss Britton, I presume…." to take advantage of the publication by Karnac Books of "Face to Face With Children: The Life and Work of Clare Winnicott" edited by Joel Kanter, with Joel Kanter, Christopher Reeves, and Olive Stevenson as speakers. The Library and archives were scoured for a display of materials related to the Winnicotts, and a multi-media CD was created with selections from the archives, and from oral history recordings about the Winnicotts and their influence.
2004 also saw the inception of another initiative, one which bore substantial fruit six years later with the Heritage Lottery Fund-supported project, "Therapeutic Living With Other People's Children". This was the first Wennington Archive Weekend, a real weekend when former students of Wennington School in Wetherby, Yorkshire, made good use of the kitchen and accommodation, helped with their archives, and recorded oral histories.
An “At Home” with Maurice Bridgeland in 2006 gave people an opportunity to experience "I Find It Hard to Talk" - an evening slide-show of art work by young people with whom Maurice had worked therapeutically over the years, accompanied by their poetry, read by Maurice; followed in the morning by a discussion with Maurice Bridgeland on clinical issues raised.
Cross-Cultural Psychotherapy Event: 2007 saw the innovation of "Wind Down the Week", an opportunity for working clinicians to relax, unwind, and work all at the same time: coming together on a Friday for a good meal followed by open-ended discussion on mutually agreed themes well into the evening, taken up again on Saturday morning and brought to a conclusion or resolution in time to return to families and life renewed for the rest of the weekend.
Institute for the History and Work of Therapeutic Environments
In 2007 the Planned Environment Therapy Trust joined with the Centre for the History of Medicine at the University of Birmingham to establish the Institute for the History and Work of Therapeutic Environments (IHWTE), a co-operative venture based in the Archive and Study Centre.
Currently relatively quiet in the wake of massive restructuring at the University of Birmingham, the significant transition in the Trust, and the intense demands throughout 2010-2011 of the "Therapeutic Living With Other People's Children" project, IHWTE opened its public life in September 2007 with a successful inaugural conference designed to consider the future of therapeutic environments using the perspective of past experience. It was entitled "If it works, wreck it...", based on a comment by IHWTE Advisory Committee member Rowdy Yates, of Stirling University; and it brought together almost sixty medical historians, clinicians, students, service users, and representatives of every aspect of therapeutic community from Camphill to addictions, for a day of structured talk and reflection.
The inaugural conference was followed in 2008 by a "I am, They Are, We Will Be", a seminar on sustainability and therapeutic environments organized by IHWTE Fellow Andrea Wheeler and held at Barns Centre; and by considerable support for the creation of the Child Care History Network, which held its inaugural conference "Child Care: The Need for History" at Barns Centre as well.
At the end of 2008, IHWTE Fellow Dimitris Vonofakos of Exeter University was awarded an IHWTE research grant for "Early influences in the work of Wilfred Bion, with a particular focus on his association with John Rickman" (see 2012).
In 2009 IHWTE Fellow Jonathan Toms organised a lively Research Workshop entitled "Therapeutic Community, the Archive and Historical Research", hosted by the Modern Records Centre at the University of Warwick. The three papers were given by IHWTE Hon. Director Craig Fees, IHWTE Fellow Jonathan Toms, and IHWTE PhD student Elaine Boyling.
Significant help was given throughout 2009-2010 by IHWTE to the Planned Environment Therapy Trust's successful grant application to the Heritage Lottery Fund for "Therapeutic Living With Other People's Children: An oral history of residential therapeutic child care c. 1930-c.1980". IHWTE Chair Dr. Tom Harrison, and IHWTE Vice-Chair Dr. Jonathan Reinarz, Director of the History of Medicine Unit at the University of Birmingham, served on the project's Assessment, Training and Advisory Group throughout the course of the project; and the two-day project conference was co-organised with and hosted by IHWTE and the History of Medicine Unit at the Medical School in September 2011.
Further in 2011, Elaine Boyling - having been awarded an IHWTE PhD studentship in 2007 to explore the theme of Quakers and therapeutic community through the History of Medicine Unit at the University of Birmingham - successfully defended her PhD. thesis, ‘Quakerism and Therapeutic Environments: dynamic resources in the management of a Therapeutic Community 1962-1995’, and was awarded her doctorate. Her lead supervisor was History of Medicine Unit Director Dr. Jonathan Reinarz, IHWTE Vice-Chair, with Dr. Craig Fees, Archivist for PETT and Hon. Director of IHWTE, as her second supervisor.
IHWTE Fellow Dimitris Vonofakos's 2008 grant, meanwhile, eventuated in an article with PETT Trustee and IHWTE Committee member Prof. Robert Hinshelwood entitled "Wilfred Bion's Letters to John Rickman (1939-1951)" which appeared in the January 2012 issue of Psychoanalysis and History.
Therapeutic Living With Other People's Children 2010 - 2011
In 2010, in time to mark the 21st anniversary of the Archive and Study Centre, the Trust was awarded a major Heritage Grant from the Heritage Lottery Fund for the project "Therapeutic Living With Other People's Children: An oral history of residential therapeutic child care c. 1930 - c. 1980".
A complex and wide-ranging project, it generated 282 audio and video recordings and 119 transcripts; 157 new additions to the archive and library collections, 5 new archive catalogues, 10 completely revised catalogues, and a new archive cataloguing database with 5,515 new entries cataloguing 22,356 items; 5,401 new digital files, preserving 2,897 images, 287 documents, 6 films, 218 audiocassettes, 9 reel to reel tapes, and capturing 72 objects;
thousands of photographs documenting the project.
The project involved 168 volunteers, 35 of whom were students and young people, in 12 Archive "Weekends"; 8 Assessment, Training, and Advisory Events; one Open Day; an international, two-day conference, organised in partnership with the Institute for the History and Work of Therapeutic Environments and the History of Medicine Unit at the University of Birmingham, held in the CPD Conference Centre in the University's Medical School; visits by former children to a Catholic secondary school, and to a leading therapeutic community for emotionally and behaviourally disturbed children; 7 Project Management Group meetings; 37 trainings (in Data Protection, archives and conservation, oral history, digital story making, transcript to script writing, website design and management); A Final Event; and multiple individual volunteer sessions between events throughout the project.
Moreover, the organisation of the Trust was renewed and upgraded, with a smooth transition of the chairmanship across generations from John Cross, who had been Chair and/or Executive Director for over 20 years, to Trustee Rosemary Lilley, and with Child Care Consultant and former Director of the Mulberry Bush School Richard Rollinson becoming the first paid Executive Director in the history of the Trust. At the conclusion of the project the members of the three-person project team were given temporary full-time contracts to help develop the work and relationships pioneered in the project; and having launched a renewal process which is still ongoing, and strengthening the Trust's operating foundations, staffing levels returned to their pre-project levels.
For a full and detailed report on the "Therapeutic Living With Other People's Children: project and its outcomes, see the Final Report and the detailed Project Brochure here.